Промоциране на здравето

Промоциране на здравето

Как се създава продукт с който да се промоцира здравето? Как да се даде избор на пациента и той сам да полага грижи за здравето си? Модели на промоция и ролята на медицинския персонал.


Empowerment 1


Anelia Rumenova Chevrakova-Mihaylova

Jan 16 Adult Nursing


Please follow the link to my artefact



https://e.powtoon.com/pub/cc?_ri_=X0Gzc2X%3DYQpglLjHJlTQGlPzdJbJHMHGSsHPisBICzadcibzdYG6BiUE5B02aYbzcA1yASAzfVXtpKX%3DSSSAT&_ei_=EiwT4nvPqVnq_hUVilXClkY_kQUpYDoINw6eynkL4KDUKPbVfXmup5cFE4yoAWwMcSQ86-mcvw_GIffoXnCsuI1ykRGXGZs2HC4aTW_BjinO0K0_oRRcbk1ojkIlvInotDi4lbZi76c9P3BSTaBOXy0ebZhD-11jgc2mzcFNUDsvvl2MXpb-bRQ. Empowerment 2

Participating in unprotected sexual activity with strangers increases risks of developing sexually transmitted infections (STDs) (Stamoulis, 2010) which may have lifelong consequences. This essay will discuss the creation of a video (animation) that has been designed to promote health and awareness of the risks of developing a SDT and outlining steps so people can protect themselves.

The target audience selected for this artefact includes young females, age of 17-26. I chose to focus on this target group as I witnessed increasing numbers of young women with SDT when I was on placement in a gynecology ward. Females are 50% more likely to develop STDs than men (Kumarasamy, et al., 2008). World health organization reported, that unsafe sexual practice is the second most important global health risk factor (World Health Orgnization,2017).

The literature and past researches present in this domain clarify that sexually transmitted disease is a one of the serious diseases that can result in poor health of individuals in a society. It is also known that variety of sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes (Nordqvist, 2015), genital warts (PlannedParenthood, 2017), HIV, AIDS, chlamydia and many others remain symptom less for quite a long time before they show up (MedlinePlus, 2017) & (MayoClinic, 2017)and when they show up, the individuals suffering from the problem are actually on their way to develop other associated problems. Using condom correctly every time reduce the risk of STD. However, using a condom cannot provide full protection, but can significantly reduce the risk (CDC, 2016). The increase in rate of young females coming in for check- up was an alarming situation and if this is neglected, it may turn into a worsened situation where females will develop serious health problems due to unprotected sex and they will be at a greater risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (Burke, Nic Gabhainn and Young,2014). Helmer et al identified that the need to provide good quality sexual education is becoming larger, because the sexual activity among people is increasing and they are at a higher risk of developing STD (Helmer et al.,2015).

The evidences also support that prevention and protection programs are mandatory for individuals who have multiple sex partners or are frequently able to switch between various sex partners. Since, this increases their risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, they are needed to take care of using protection such as condom while they get involves in such activities (Baguely, Kumar and Persad, 2006). Empowerment 3

Furthermore, there is a technique that is helpful in determining whether a person has developed any kind of sexually transmitted disease or not. This technique is known as screening or STD screening (Healthline, 2016) & (I-Wanna-Know, 2017). Since most of the sexually transmitted diseases remain symptom free, it is difficult to see whether they are present in an individual without screening (STDCheck, 2017) & (TeensHealth, 2017). Evidences of past literature show that screening helps in determining such problems earlier than they show up.

Based on these evidences, the most suitable target audience to be considered for this designed artefact is female gender and per the statistics or rising number of female patients in the gynecology ward shows that females are most vulnerable to sexually transmitted disease. Therefore, these facts prove the importance of designed video for the selected target audience; young females.

The animation has a specific reason behind it and that specific reason is health promotion as well as empowerment. The designed artefact particularly reflects upon how important it is for maintenance of health and how it can be done through understanding and following what has been told in this animation. The theory of empowerment enable an individual to gain control over their lives and making decisions for themselves which they consider as good (Fitzpatrick & McCarthy, 2014), (Zimmerman, 2000). Health promotion is an aspect through which health aspects and activities that may be beneficial for a person are promoted (Green, 2000) & (Wiggins, 2012). When speaking for improvement on sexual health, it is important to mention that it is aiming for behavior change. The health belief model is establishing that changing the behaviour depends on the individuals believe about their awareness to a disease and the benefits involved in any change of behaviour (Evans, Coutsaftiki and Fathers, 2011). Young people should be provided with information and encouraged to reflect on their experience and attitudes, giving them opportunity to make their choice (Naidoo and Wills,2000). The Health belief model suggests that the individual need a stimulus or hint to trigger the process, so that the person can become aware of a potential risk and commence the appropriate behaviour (Becker,1974). When creating my animation, and encouraging young females to use condoms, using the Health Believe Model as a base model for my artefact, so the audience can assess the real risk of unprotected sex and encouraging the use of condoms in their sexual life by giving information on where to get condoms and how to be used Empowerment 4

(Hitabiddle,1996) However, there is a limitation on this model, as very often the peer pressure amongst young people and emotional factors can relegate their ability to be objective on the risk and making decision (Hiltabiddle,1996). That’s why it is important the self-efficacy when explaining health-related behaviors (Kemm and Close,1996). The theory of health locus of control explains the control over events and the extent to which people think they have that control, and how their personalities are changing in results of that. The theory suggests that people who feel more in control of their lives are more likely to change their behavior then people who feel they don’t have that much control over their life (Naidoo and Wills,2010). All this models and theories were applied when designing the artefact, they are the most appropriate, with all their disadvantages, when promoting sexual health and preventing STD.

The animation has been developed with the help of PowToon (Powtoon, 2017). The aim is to spread awareness in target audience who are at the verge of developing sexually transmitted diseases due to the unprotected sex they have. This video has been specifically designed to cater the needs of target audiences and for this reason, this artefact is aimed to make them aware and inform them about the dangers they invite while indulging in such kinds of activities (MedicineHealth, 2017).

All the information has been conveyed with the help of an animated video where concepts are provided. For example, the artefact firstly describes whether unprotected sex is a good thing or not. Information of where condoms can be found and how to be used properly is provided, as this empowers the targeted audience, by giving them the information so they have enough confidence and skills of how to use the condom, so they have control over (Naidoo and Wills,2000). Moreover, the starting of this artefact outlines various kinds of sexually transmitted diseases that can be developed in such partners who do not use protection and/ or actively switch between their different sex partners which is partly the educational approach. This model provides information to help the target audience to make an informed choice about health behavior (Naidoo and Wills,2000).

Another side of the sexual health and SDT prevention is the protection motivation theory and partly the theory of planned behavior, both implemented and used when the animation was Empowerment 5

created, where the individual’s perceived behaviour is within their control and is linked to autonomy and efficacy (Conner and Norman, 2007). The artefact also empowers women and females who think they do not have a say in such aspects. The artefact provides a clear description as to what is a good night compared to a night where the two partners were involved in sexual activity.

Per the various theories of health promotion, they are used particularly to address how health can be improved as well as how the diseases can be prevented (Ricketts, 2016).

With application of both kinds of theories, theory of empowerment and theory and models of health promotion (such as theory of reasoned action), the designed artefact meet requirement of target audience (RHIHub, 2017). For example, with application of theory of empowerment while designing this animation, it can tell the audience that they are the ones who can decide what they want to do. Empowerment is crucial to promote health and it is associated with having the ability to make free choices (Johnson, 2011). A person who has the autonomy and has been empowered to recognize that sexual activities involved the risk of SDT will be more likely to use the effective self-protection measures, which is the main principle in my artefact. It is no one’s right to tell what a female can do. The theory of empowerment clearly demonstrates through this video that empowered female can decide if they want to use condom, how to use it, where they can get it from and how they can protect themselves (Brown, Sorenson and Hildebrand,2012).

Similarly, application of various theories and models of health promotion helped to design the animation and provides helpful information as to understand that use any protection method, or specifically using a condom during sexual intercourse with a stranger is extremely important. The promotion of positive health in my artefact is the main element and the targeted group needs to take responsibility for their own health and by changing their bahaviour to empower them to achieve optimum health and make their own choices.

As the targeted audience for this research is young females, it can be easily understood that the design of artefact should be modern and attractive so that it catches their attention. For this reason, the design chosen such as the colour scheme, animation figures and the way information is presented have a lot of impact on the targeted audience (Brown, Sorenson and Hildebrand, 2012). Therefore, selection of all these facts in the design of this video impacts on how the Empowerment 6

audience will engage and how much the audience will be attracted to it. Helmer et al suggests that young people did not understand the different types of STD and are potentially exposing themselves to unprotected sex. That’s why education and promoting sexual health will be far more accepted from young people if it focuses on positive aspects of sexuality, being engaging, fun and having hypothetical scenario, non-judgmental and being interactive (Helmer et al.,2015).

Another study suggests that providing young people with enough information which can stimulate them and motivate them (using the health promotion model) to use self-protections in a different way than a leaflet might be more successful. However, this is not proven that there is improvement to behavioral change, but does help improve health-seeking behaviour (Lazarus et al.,2010). This is the reason why animation has been chosen as design for my artefact. The Office for National Statistic reported that all adults aged 16-34 years were recent internet users (99%) and this is another reason for the design, as can be distributed easy and quick (Office for national statistic,2017). The animation can be shown in a waiting area in a GP practice, health clinics, student areas/cafes, can be distributed via social media, can be showing to small groups of young females as part of education, it can be part of a peer education programs (Helmer et al.,2015). However, this is still a health education material and the availability, the content, educational level and language and the style and presentation are very important (Evans, Coutsaftiki and Fathers, 2011). Using characters which are at a young age can help target the population to recognize themselves in the animation. As recommended from NHS Identity guidelines images and clear illustration should be used, rather than images which do not show the real things. It should have information which is up to date, and this is by using relevant data and statistic (England.nhs.uk,2017). Sex education and safe sexual activities promotes not only health, but moral, cultural and mental development of young people. Sexual health education is part of the socialization, that’s why this animation has the aim to empower young people in an informal manner, using informal language and being close related to young people’s life, to make informed choices and decisions related to their health (Kemm and Close, 1966). Thus, use of animation is selected as a method to convey messages so that they are no discrimination or ethical issues associated with it. Animations are always preferred and liked even by all ages of people thus, using animation portrayed that this information is for all ages of females whether they are young or old and are from any background (Scriven, 2002). In the video, only positive images have been used, as there is association between a health behaviour and the preferred lifestyle, and not only has it Empowerment 7

been found that health promotion is not the same as the commercial and therefore to be reaching my young target group it should be interactive, accessible and understandable (Naidoo and Wills,2010).

This essay provides an in-depth analysis of the artefact that has been designed for raising awareness among young females for the downside of sexually transmitted diseases. The whole essay has been structured to prove that the artefact being developed helps in raising awareness for the selected target audience.

Also, this essay provided a thorough discussion of how health promotion models and theories along with the theory of empowerment are applied in designing of artefact and how does it help in reducing the problem for which it has been developed; that is to spread awareness of various problems of unprotected sex and to reduce the number of young females coming to gynecology ward for the treatment.


Adams, J. (2015). Theories Guiding Nursing Research and Practice – Making Nursing Knowledge Development Explicit FitzpatrickJ Joyce J and McCarthy Geraldine (Eds) Theories Guiding Nursing Research and Practice – Making Nursing Knowledge Development Explicit 384pp $70/£41.93 Springer Publishing 9780836164049 0826164048. Cancer Nursing Practice, 14(2), pp.11-11.

Baguley, S., Kumar, S. and Persad, R. (2006). Key topics in sexual health. 1st ed. London: Taylor & Francis.

Becker, M. (1974). The Health belief model and personal health behavior. 1st ed. San Francisco:Society for Public Health Education.

Това е артефакт създаден от мен, като е обяснено как и защо е създаден. Развита е теорията за промоциране на здравето и ролята на медицинския персонал.